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The dogmas of the faith  
(Excerpts from the Catechism)

88 The Church's Magisterium exercises the authority it holds from Christ to 
the fullest extent when it defines dogmas, that is, when it proposes truths 
contained in divine Revelation or having a necessary connection with them, 
in a form obliging the Christian people to an irrevocable adherence of 

89 There is an organic connection between our spiritual life and the 
dogmas. Dogmas are lights along the path of faith; they illuminate it and 
make it secure. Conversely, if our life is upright, our intellect and heart 
will be open to welcome the light shed by the dogmas of faith.

90 The mutual connections between dogmas, and their coherence, can be found 
in the whole of the Revelation of the mystery of Christ. "In Catholic 
doctrine there exists an order or hierarchy 234 of truths, since they vary 
in their relation to the foundation of the Christian faith."

Dogmas of the Catholic Church. (Fundamentals)
The following De Fide statements comprise "Our Catholic Faith without which it is impossible to please God" (The Council of Trent, Session V, explaining the correct interpretation of Hebrews 11: 6). These positive "articles of faith" have the function of fundamental principles which the faithful accepts without discussion as being certain and sure by virtue of the authority of God, Who is absolute truth (Council of the Vatican). They represent the mind of Christ as St. Paul says:
  • 1 Cor. 2:16. But we have the mind of Christ.
  • Hebrews 13:8. Jesus Christ yesterday, and today: and the same for ever.
Since Our Catholic Faith comes from God, they are not open for debate, and they are not reversible.
The Christian is called to adhere to Christ and His teaching integrally; the unity of faith is the dominant motif of divine revelation on which St. Paul insists energetically, when he writes:
  • 1 Cor. 1:10. I beseech you, brethren, by the name of our Lord Jesus Christ, that you all speak the same thing, and that there be no schisms among you: but that you be perfect in mind and in the same judgement.
There is, then, no place for "pick and choose" in the truths proposed to the Faith of Christians by the Infallible Teaching Church for they are bound in Heaven by God Himself. If something is decreed on earth and is also bound in Heaven, that thing must be the truth. Otherwise, God is no longer the Truth, which is contrary to the Gospel:
  • Matthew 16:19. And I will give to thee the keys of the kingdom of heaven. And whatsoever thou shalt bind upon earth, it shall be bound also in heaven: and whatsoever thou shalt loose upon earth, it shall be loosed also in Heaven.
The Catholic Church is infallible because it is :
  • 1 Tim 3:15. the church of the living God, the pillar and the ground of the truth.
If a baptized person deliberately denies or contradicts a dogma, he or she is guilty of sin of heresy and automatically becomes subject to the punishment of excommunication.

From the work of Dr. Ludwig Ott, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, published by the Mercier Press Ltd., Cork, Ireland, 1955. With Imprimatur of Cornelius, Bishop. Reprinted in U.S.A. by Tan Books and Publishers, Rockford, Illinois, 1974. 
  1. The Unity and Trinity of God
  2. God the Creator
  3. God the Redeemer
  4. The Mother of the Redeemer
  5. God the Sanctifier
  6. The Catholic Church
  7. The Communion of Saints
  8. The Sacraments
  9. Baptism
  10. Confirmation
  11. Holy Eucharist
  12. Penance
  13. Holy Orders
  14. Matrimony
  15. Extreme Unction
  16. The Last Things
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I. The Unity and Trinity of God

  1. God, our Creator and Lord, can be known with certainty, by the natural light of reason from created things.
  2. God's existence is not merely an object of rational knowledge, but also an object of supernatural faith.
  3. God's Nature is incomprehensible to men.
  4. The blessed in Heaven possess an immediate intuitive knowledge of the Divine Essence.
  5. The immediate vision of God transcends the natural power of cognition of the human soul, and is therefore supernatural.
  6. The soul, for the immediate vision of God, requires the light of glory.
  7. God's Essence is also incomprehensible to the blessed in Heaven.
  8. The divine attributes are really identical among themselves and with the Divine Essence.
  9. God is absolutely perfect.
  10. God is actually infinite in every perfection.
  11. God is absolutely simple.
  12. There is only one God.
  13. The one God is, in the ontological sense, the true God.
  14. God possesses an infinite power of cognition.
  15. God is absolute veracity.
  16. God is absolutely faithful.
  17. God is absolute ontological goodness in Himself and in relation to others.
  18. God is absolute moral goodness or holiness.
  19. God is absolute benignity.
  20. God is absolutely immutable.
  21. God is eternal.
  22. God is immense or absolutely immeasurable.
  23. God is everywhere present in created space.
  24. God's knowledge is infinite.
  25. God's knowledge is purely and simply actual.
  26. God's knowledge is subsistent.
  27. God knows all that is merely possible by the knowledge of simple intelligence.
  28. God knows all real things in the past, the present and the future.
  29. By the knowledge of vision, God also foresees the future free acts of rational creatures with infallible certainty.
  30. God's Divine Will is infinite.
  31. God loves Himself of necessity, but loves and wills the creation of extra-divine things, on the other hand, with freedom.
  32. God is almighty.
  33. God is the Lord of the heavens and of the earth.
  34. God is infinitely just.
  35. God is infinitely merciful.
  36. In God there are three Persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost. Each of the three Persons possesses the one (numerical) Divine Essence.
  37. In God there are two internal divine processions.
  38. The Divine Persons, not the Divine Nature, are the subject of the internal divine processions (in the active and in the passive sense).
  39. The Second Divine Person proceeds from the First Divine Person by generation, and therefore is related to Him as Son to Father.
  40. The Holy Ghost proceeds from the Father and from the Son as from a single principle through a single spiration.
  41. The Holy Ghost does not proceed through generation but through spiration.
  42. The relations in God are really identical with the Divine Nature.
  43. The Three Divine Persons are in one another.
  44. All the ad extra activities of God are common to the three Persons.
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II. God the Creator

  1. All that exists outside God was, in its whole substance, produced out of nothing by God.
  2. God was moved by His goodness to create the world.
  3. The world was created for the glorification of God.
  4. The Three Divine Persons are one single, common principle of creation.
  5. God created the world free from exterior compulsion and inner necessity.
  6. God has created a good world.
  7. The world had a beginning in time.
  8. God alone created the world.
  9. God keeps all created things in existence.
  10. God, through His Providence, protects and guides all that He has created.
  11. The first man was created by God.
  12. Man consists of two essential parts - a material body and a spiritual soul.
  13. The rational soul per se is the essential form of the body.
  14. Every human being possesses an individual soul.
  15. God has conferred on man a supernatural destiny.
  16. Our first parents, before the fall, were endowed with sanctifying grace.
  17. In addition to sanctifying grace, our first parents were endowed with the preternatural gift of bodily immortality.
  18. Our first parents in Paradise sinned grievously through transgression of the Divine probationary commandment.
  19. Through sin our first parents lost sanctifying grace and provoked the anger and the indignation of God.
  20. Our first parents became subject to death and to the dominion of the devil.
  21. Adam's sin is transmitted to his posterity, not by imitation but by descent.
  22. Original sin is transmitted by natural generation.
  23. In the state of original sin man is deprived of sanctifying grace and all that this implies, as well as of the preternatural gifts of integrity.
  24. Souls who depart this life in the state of original sin are excluded from the Beatific Vision of God.
  25. In the beginning of time God created spiritual essences (angels) out of nothing.
  26. The nature of angels is spiritual.
  27. The evil spirits (demons) were created good by God; they became evil through their own fault.
  28. The secondary task of the good angels is the protection of men and care for their salvation.
  29. The devil possesses a certain dominion over mankind by reason of Adam's sin.
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III. God the Redeemer

  1. Jesus Christ is true God and true Son of God.
  2. Christ assumed a real body, not an apparent body.
  3. Christ assumed not only a body but also a rational soul.
  4. Christ was truly generated and born of a daughter of Adam, the Virgin Mary.
  5. The Divine and human natures are united hypostatically in Christ, that is, joined to each other in one Person.
  6. In the hypostatic union each of the two natures of Christ continues unimpaired, untransformed, and unmixed with each other.
  7. Each of the two natures in Christ possesses its own natural will and its own natural mode of operation.
  8. The hypostatic union of Christ's human nature with the Divine Logos took place at the moment of conception.
  9. The hypostatic union was effected by the three Divine Persons acting in common.
  10. Only the second Divine Person became Man.
  11. Not only as God but also as man Jesus Christ is the natural Son of God.
  12. The God-Man Jesus Christ is to be venerated with one single mode of worship, the absolute worship of latria which is due to God alone.
  13. Christ's Divine and human characteristics and activities are to be predicated of the one Word Incarnate.
  14. Christ was free from all sin, from original sin as well as from all personal sin.
  15. Christ's human nature was passable.
  16. The Son of God became man in order to redeem men.
  17. Fallen man cannot redeem himself.
  18. The God-man Jesus Christ is a high priest.
  19. Christ offered Himself on the Cross as a true and proper sacrifice.
  20. Christ by His sacrifice on the Cross has ransomed us and reconciled us with God.
  21. Christ, through His passion and death, merited award from God.
  22. After His death, Christ's Soul, which was separated from His Body, descended into the underworld.
  23. On the third day after His death, Christ rose gloriously from the dead.
  24. Christ ascended body and soul into Heaven and sits at the right hand of the Father. 
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IV. The Mother of the Redeemer

  1. Mary is truly the Mother of God.
  2. Mary was conceived without the stain of original sin.
    Mary is the Immaculate Conception.
  3. Mary conceived by the Holy Ghost without the cooperation of man.
  4. Mary bore her Son without any violation of her virginal integrity.
  5. After the birth of Jesus, Mary remained a Virgin.
  6. Mary was assumed body and soul into Heaven.
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V. God the Sanctifier

  1. There is a supernatural intervention of God in the faculties of the soul, which precedes the free act of the will.
  2. There is a supernatural influence of God in the faculties of the soul which coincides in time with man's free act of will.
  3. For every salutary act, internal supernatural grace of God (gratia elevans) is absolutely necessary.
  4. Internal supernatural grace is absolutely necessary for the beginning of faith and salvation.
  5. Without the special help of God, the justified cannot persevere to the end in justification.
  6. The justified person is not able for his whole life long to avoid sins, even venial sins, without the special privilege of the grace of God.
  7. Even in the fallen state, man can, by his natural intellectual power, know religious and moral truths.
  8. For the performance of a morally good action, sanctifying grace is not required.
  9. In the state of fallen nature, it is morally impossible for man without supernatural Revelation, to know easily, with absolute certainty, and without admixture of error, all religious and moral truths of the natural order.
  10. Grace cannot be merited by natural works either de condigno or de congruo.
  11. God gives all the just sufficient grace for the observation of the divine commandments.
  12. God, by His eternal resolve of Will, has predetermined certain men to eternal blessedness.
  13. God, by an eternal resolve of His Will, predestines certain men, on account of their foreseen sins, to eternal rejection.
  14. The human will remains free under the influence of efficacious grace, which is not irresistible.
  15. There is grace which is truly sufficient and yet remains inefficacious.
  16. The causes of Justification. (Defined by the Council of Trent) :
    1. The final cause is the honour of God and of Christ and the eternal life of men.
    2. The efficient cause is the mercy of God.
    3. The meritorious cause is Jesus Christ, who as mediator between God and men, has made atonement for us and merited the grace by which we are justified.
    4. The instrumental cause of the first justification is the Sacrament of Baptism. Thus it defines that Faith is a necessary precondition for justification (of adults).
    5. The formal cause is God's Justice, not by which He Himself is just, but which He makes us just, that is, Sanctifying Grace.
  17. The sinner can and must prepare himself by the help of actual grace for the reception of the grace by which he is justified.
  18. The justification of an adult is not possible without faith.
  19. Besides faith, further acts of disposition must be present.
  20. Sanctifying grace sanctifies the soul.
  21. Sanctifying grace makes the just man a friend of God.
  22. Sanctifying grace makes the just man a child of God and gives him a claim to the inheritance of heaven.
  23. The three Divine or theological virtues of faith, hope and charity are infused with sanctifying grace.
  24. Without special Divine Revelation no one can know with the certainty of faith, if he be in the state of grace.
  25. The degree of justifying grace is not identical in all the just.
  26. Grace can be increased by good works.
  27. The grace by which we are justified may be lost, and is lost by every grievous sin.
  28. By his good works, the justified man really acquires a claim to supernatural reward from God.
  29. A just man merits for himself through each good work an increase of sanctifying grace, eternal life (if death finds him in the state of grace) and an increase in heavenly glory.
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VI. The Catholic Church

  1. The Catholic Church was founded by the God-Man Jesus Christ.
  2. Christ founded the Catholic Church in order to continue His work of redemption for all time.
  3. Christ gave His Church a hierarchical constitution.
  4. The powers bestowed on the Apostles have descended to the Bishops.
  5. Christ appointed the Apostle Peter to be the first of all the Apostles and to be the visible Head of the whole Catholic Church, by appointing him immediately and personally to the primacy of jurisdiction.
  6. According to Christ's ordinance, Peter is to have successors in his Primacy over the whole Catholic Church and for all time.
  7. The successors of Peter in the Primacy are the Bishops of Rome.
  8. The Pope possesses full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole Catholic Church, not merely in matters of faith and morals, but also in Church discipline and in the government of the Church.
  9. The Pope is infallible when he speaks ex cathedra.
  10. By virtue of Divine right, the bishops possess an ordinary power of government over their dioceses.
  11. Christ founded the Catholic Church.
  12. Christ is the Head of the Catholic Church.
  13. In the final decision on doctrines concerning faith and morals, the Catholic Church is infallible.
  14. The primary object of the Infallibility is the formally revealed truths of Christian Doctrine concerning faith and morals.
  15. The totality of the Bishops is infallible, when they, either assembled in general council or scattered over the earth propose a teaching of faith or morals as one to he held by all the faithful.
  16. The Church founded by Christ is unique and one.
  17. The Church founded by Christ is holy.
  18. The Church founded by Christ is catholic.
  19. The Church founded by Christ is apostolic.
  20. Membership of the Catholic Church is necessary for all men for salvation.
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VII. The Communion of Saints

  1. It is permissible and profitable to venerate the Saints in Heaven, and to invoke their intercession.
  2. It is permissible and profitable to venerate the relics of the Saints.
  3. It is permissible and profitable to venerate images of the Saints.
  4. The living faithful can come to the assistance of the souls in Purgatory by their intercessions.
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VIII. The Sacraments

  1. The Sacraments of the New Covenant contain the grace which they signify, and bestow it on those who do not hinder it.
  2. The Sacraments work ex opere operato, that is, the sacraments operate by the power of the completed sacramental rite.
  3. All the Sacraments of the New Covenant confer sanctifying grace on the receivers.
  4. Three Sacraments, Baptism, Confirmation, and Holy Orders, imprint a character, that is an indelible spiritual mark, and, for this reason, cannot be repeated.
  5. The sacramental character is a spiritual mark imprinted on the soul.
  6. The sacramental character continues at least until the death of the bearer.
  7. All Sacraments of the New Covenant were instituted by Jesus Christ.
  8. There are seven Sacraments of the New Law.
  9. The Sacraments of the New Covenant are necessary for the salvation of mankind.
  10. The validity and efficacy of the Sacrament is independent of the minister's orthodoxy and state of grace.
  11. For the valid dispensing of the Sacraments it is necessary that the minister accomplish the Sacramental sign in the proper manner.
  12. The minister must have the intention of at least doing what the Church does.
  13. In the case of adult recipients moral worthiness is necessary for the worthy or fruitful reception of the Sacraments.
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IX. Baptism

  1. Baptism is a true Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The materia remota of the Sacrament of Baptism is true and natural water.
  3. Baptism confers the grace of justification.
  4. Baptism effects the remission of all punishments of sin, both eternal and temporal.
  5. Even if it be unworthily received, valid Baptism imprints on the soul of the recipient an indelible spiritual mark, the Baptismal Character, and for this reason, the Sacrament cannot be repeated.
  6. Baptism by water (Baptismus fluminis) is, since the promulgation of the Gospel, necessary for all men without exception for salvation.
  7. Baptism can be validly administered by anyone.
  8. Baptism can be received by any person in the wayfaring state who is not already baptised.
  9. The Baptism of young children is valid and licit.
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X. Confirmation

  1. Confirmation is a true Sacrament properly so-called.
  2. Confirmation imprints on the soul an indelible spiritual mark, and for this reason, cannot be repeated.
  3. The ordinary minister of Confirmation is the Bishop alone.
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XI. Holy Eucharist

  1. The Body and Blood of Jesus Christ are truly, really, and substantially present in the Eucharist.
  2. Christ becomes present in the Sacrament of the Altar by the transformation of the whole substance of the bread into His Body and of the whole substance of the wine into His Blood.
  3. The accidents of bread and wine continue after the change of the substance.
  4. The Body and Blood of Christ together with His Soul and Divinity and therefore, the whole Christ, are truly present in the Eucharist.
  5. The Whole Christ is present under each of the two Species.
  6. When either consecrated Species is divided, the Whole Christ is present in each part of the Species.
  7. After the Consecration has been completed the Body and Blood are permanently present in the Eucharist.
  8. The Worship of Adoration (latria) must be given to Christ present in the Eucharist.
  9. The Eucharist is a true Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  10. The matter for the consummation of the Eucharist is bread and wine.
  11. For children before the age of reason, the reception of the Eucharist is not necessary for salvation.
  12. Communion under two forms is not necessary for any individual members of the Faithful, either by reason of Divine precept or as a means of salvation.
  13. The power of consecration resides in a validly consecrated priest only .
  14. The Sacrament of the Eucharist can be validly received by every baptised person in the wayfaring state, including young children.
  15. For the worthy reception of the Eucharist, the state of grace as well as the proper and pious disposition are necessary.
  16. The Holy Mass is a true and proper Sacrifice.
  17. In the Sacrifice of the Mass, Christ's Sacrifice on the Cross is made present, its memory celebrated, and its saving power applied.
  18. In the Sacrifice of the Mass and in the Sacrifice of the Cross the Sacrificial Gift and the Primary Sacrificing Priest are identical; only the nature and the mode of the offering are different.
  19. The Sacrifice of the Mass is not merely a sacrifice of praise and thanks-giving, but also a sacrifice of expiation and impetration.
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XII. Penance

  1. The Church has received from Christ the power of remitting sins committed after Baptism.
  2. By the Church's Absolution sins are truly and immediately remitted.
  3. The Church's power to forgive sins extends to all sin without exception.
  4. The exercise of the Church's power to forgive sins is a judicial act.
  5. The forgiveness of sins which takes place in the Tribunal of Penance is a true and proper Sacrament, which is distinct from the Sacrament of Baptism.
  6. Extra-sacramental justification is effected by perfect sorrow only when it is associated with the desire for the Sacrament (votum sacramenti).
  7. Contrition springing from the motive of fear is a morally good and supernatural act.
  8. The Sacramental confession of sins is ordained by God and is necessary for salvation.
  9. By virtue of Divine ordinance, all grievous sins according to kind and number, as well as those circumstances which alter their nature, are subject to the obligation of confession.
  10. The confession of venial sins is not necessary but is permitted and is useful.
  11. All temporal punishments for sin are not always remitted by God with the guilt of sin and the eternal punishment.
  12. The priest has the right and duty, according to the nature of the sins and the ability of the penitent, to impose salutary and appropriate works for satisfaction.
  13. Extra-sacramental penitential works, such as the performance of voluntary penitential practices and the patient bearing of trials sent by God, possess satisfactory value.
  14. The form of the Sacrament of Penance consists in the words of Absolution.
  15. Absolution, in association with the acts of the penitent, effects the forgiveness of sins.
  16. The principal effect of the Sacrament of Penance is the reconciliation of the sinner with God.
  17. The Sacrament of Penance is necessary for salvation to those who, after Baptism, fall into grievous sin.
  18. The sole possessors of the Church's Power of Absolution are the bishops and priests.
  19. Absolution given by deacons, clerics or lower rank, and laymen is not Sacramental Absolution.
  20. The Sacrament of Penance can be received by any baptised person who, after Baptism, has committed a grievous or a venial sin.
  21. The Church possesses the power to grant Indulgences.
  22. The use of Indulgences is useful and salutary to the Faithful.
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XIII. Holy Orders

  1. Holy Order is a true and proper Sacrament which was instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The consecration of priests is a Sacrament.
  3. Bishops are superior to priests.
  4. The Sacrament of Order confers sanctifying grace on the recipient.
  5. The Sacrament of Order imprints a character on the recipient.
  6. The Sacrament of Order confers a permanent spiritual power on the recipient.
  7. The ordinary dispenser of all grades of Order, both the sacramental and the non-sacramental, is the validly consecrated Bishop alone.
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XIV. Matrimony

  1. Marriage is a true and proper Sacrament instituted by God.
  2. From the sacramental contract of marriage emerges the Bond of Marriage, which binds both marriage partners to a lifelong indivisible community of life.
  3. The Sacrament of Matrimony bestows sanctifying grace on the contracting parties.
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XV. Anointing of the sick

  1. Extreme Unction or anointing of the sick is a true and proper Sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ.
  2. The remote matter of Extreme Unction is oil.
  3. The form consists in the prayer of the priest for the sick person which accomplishes the anointing.
  4. Extreme Unction gives the sick person sanctifying grace in order to arouse and strengthen him.
  5. Extreme Unction effects the remission of grievous sins still remaining and of venial sins.
  6. Extreme Unction sometimes effects the restoration of bodily health, if this be of spiritual advantage.
  7. Only Bishops and priests can validly administer Extreme Unction.
  8. Extreme Unction can be received only by the Faithful who are seriously ill.
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XVI. The Last Things

  1. In the present order of salvation, death is a punishment for sin.
  2. All human beings subject to original sin are subject to the law of death.
  3. The souls of the just which in the moment of death are free from all guilt of sin and punishment for sin, enter into Heaven.
  4. The bliss of Heaven lasts for all eternity.
  5. The degree of perfection of the Beatific Vision granted to the just is proportioned to each one's merit.
  6. The souls of those who die in the condition of personal grievous sin enter Hell.
  7. The punishment of Hell lasts for all eternity.
  8. The souls of the just which, in the moment of death, are burdened with venial sins or temporal punishment due to sins, enter purgatory.
  9. At the end of the world Christ will come again in glory to pronounce judgement.
  10. All the dead will rise again on the last day with their bodies.
  11. The dead will rise again with the same bodies as they had on earth.
  12. Christ, on His second coming, will judge all men.
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Dogmas of the Catholic Church - Catholic Apologetics 

What is the difference between doctrine and dogma?

Full Question

I have heard that the teaching on Mary as Mediatrix of All Graces is official Catholic doctrine but not a dogma of faith. I am not clear on the difference between doctrine and dogma. Can you clear it up for me?


In general, doctrine is all Church teaching in matters of faith and morals. Dogma is more narrowly defined as that part of doctrine which has been divinely revealed and which the Church has formally defined and declared to be believed as revealed.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church explains,
The Church’s magisterium exercises the authority it holds from Christ to the fullest extent when it defines dogmas, that is, when it proposes, in a form obliging the Christian people to an irrevocable adherence of faith, truths contained in divine Revelation or also when it proposes, in a definitive way, truths having a necessary connection with these. (CCC 88)
Concerning the Church’s teaching that Mary is the Mediatrix of All Graces, while this doctrine has been divinely revealed, it has not yet been—although could be—elevated to dogma. In Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Dr. Ludwig Ott explains, "The doctrine of Mary’s Universal Mediation of Grace based on her co-operation in the Incarnation is so definitely manifest in the sources of the faith, that nothing stands in the way of a dogmatic definition" (215).

Answered by: Jim Blackburn

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If a person is infertile through no fault of his own, can he get married in the Catholic Church?

Full Question

If a person is infertile through no fault of his own, can he get married in the Catholic Church?


You may be confusing infertility with impotence. Infertility (the inability to procreate children) is not an impediment to marriage; permanent and irreversible impotence (the inability to consummate a marriage through marital relations) is an impediment. Impotence that is known at the time of the marriage to be permanent and irreversible is a barrier to marriage, because the couple must be capable of consummating their marriage. If the couple has reason to assume that the impotence can be treated or reversed, they may get married.

Roman Catholic dogma

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Statue of Saint Peter holding the keys of the kingdom of heaven. (Gospel of Matthew(16:18–19)
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In the Roman Catholic Church, a dogma is an article of faith revealed by God, which the magisterium of the Church presents as necessary to be believed if one freely chooses to be a Catholic.[a] For example, Christian dogma states that the resurrection of Jesus Christ is the basic truth from which salvation and life is derived for Christians. Dogmas regulate the language, how the truth of the resurrection is to be believed and communicated. One dogma is only a small particle of the living Christian faith, from which it derives its meaning.[1] Roman Catholic Dogma is thus: "a truth revealed by God, which the magisterium of the Church declared as binding."[2] The Catechism of the Catholic Church states:
The Church's Magisterium exercises the authority it holds from Christ to the fullest extent when it defines dogmas, that is, when it proposes, in a form obliging the Christian people to an irrevocable adherence of faith, truths contained in divine Revelation or also when it proposes, in a definitive way, truths having a necessary connection with these.[3]
The faithful are required to accept with the divine and Catholic faith all which the Church presents either as solemn decision or as general teaching. Yet not all teachings are dogma. The faithful are only required to accept those teachings as dogma, if the Church clearly and specifically identifies them as infallible dogmas.[4] If a Catholic were to willfully deny any particular dogma they know is taught dogmatically by the Church, they would no longer be a part of the Church, since heresy immediately separates one from the Church.[b]
Not all theological truths are dogmas. The Bible contains many sacred truths, which the faithful recognize and agree with, but which the Church has not defined as dogma. Most Church teachings are not dogma. Cardinal Avery Dulles pointed out that in the 800 pages of the Second Vatican Council documents, there is not one new statement for which infallibility is claimed.[6]


·                                 1 Elements: Scripture and Tradition
·                                 2 Dogma as divine and Catholic faith
·                                 3 Early uses of the term
·                                 4 Theological certainties
·                                 5 Papal bulls and encyclicals
·                                 6 Apparitions and revelations
·                                 7 Ecumenical aspects
·                                 8 Notes
·                                 9 References
·                                 10 Sources

Elements: Scripture and Tradition[edit]

The concept of dogma has two elements: immediate divine revelation from Scripture or Sacred Tradition, and, a proposition of the Church, which not only announces the dogma but also declares it binding for the faith. This may occur through an ex cathedra decision by a Pope, or by an Ecumenical Council.[7]
The Holy Scripture is not identical with divine revelation, but a part of it.[8] Scriptures were written later by apostles and evangelists, who knew Jesus. They give infallible testimony of his teachings.[8] Scripture thus belongs to Tradition in the larger sense, where it has an absolute priority, because it is the Word of God, and because it is the unchangeable testimony of the apostles of Christ, whose fullness the Church preserves with its tradition.[9]

Dogma as divine and Catholic faith[edit]

Part of a series on the
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·                                 History
·                                 Catholicism
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·                                 Four Marks of the Church
·                                 Ten Commandments
·                                 Crucifixion / Resurrection / Ascension
of Jesus
·                                 Assumption of Mary
·                                 Trinity (Father
·                                 Son
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·                                 Apologetics
·                                 Divine grace
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·                                 Purgatory
·                                 Salvation
·                                 Original sin
·                                 Saints
·                                 Dogma
·                                 Virgin Mary (Mariology
·                                 Immaculate Conception)
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o                                                        sexual morality
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Other topics
·                                 Art
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·                                 v
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Dogma is considered to be both divine and Catholic faith. Divine, because of its believed origin and Catholic because of belief in the infallible teaching binding for all.[10] At the turn of the 20th century, a group of theologians calledmodernists stated that dogmas did not fall from heaven but are historical manifestations at a given time. In the encyclical Pascendi dominici gregis,Pope Pius X condemned this teaching as heresy in 1907. The Catholic position is that the content of a dogma has truly divine origin. It is considered an expression of an objective truth and does not change.[11] The truth of God, revealed by God, does not change, as God himself does not change; "Heaven and earth will pass away, but my words will not pass away".[12]
However, truths of the faith have been declared dogmatically throughout the ages. The instance of a Pope doing this outside an Ecumenical Council is rare, though there were two instances in recent times: the Immaculate Conceptionof Mary in 1854 and the Assumption of Mary into heaven in 1950.[13] A Pope cannot make infallible proclamations without ascertaining that they are beliefs already held in some form throughout the Catholic church. Both Pope Pius IXand Pope Pius XII consulted the bishops worldwide before proclaiming these dogmas. A movement to declare a third Marian dogma for Mediatrix and Co-Redemptrix was underway in the 1990s,[14] an issue handled very delicately by the Bishops at Vatican II.[15]

Early uses of the term[edit]

The term Dogma Catholicum was first used by Vincent of Lérins (450), referring to "what all, everywhere and always believed".[16] In the year 565,Emperor Justinian declared the decisions of the first ecumenical councils as law because they are true dogmata of God[16] In the Middle Ages, the termdoctrina Catholica, (Catholic doctrine) was used for the Catholic faith. Individual beliefs were labeled as articulus fidei ( part of the faith).
Ecumenical Councils issue dogmas. Many dogmas - especially from the early Church (Ephesus, Chalcedon) to the Council of Trent - were formulated against specific heresies.(Holy Spirit only emanating from father and not from Father and Son) Later dogmas (Immaculate Conception and Assumption of Mary) express the greatness of God in binding language. At the specific request of Pope John XXIII, the Second Vatican Council did not proclaim any dogmas. Instead it presented the basic elements of the Catholic faith in a more understandable, pastoral language, without changing the teachings of the Church.[1] The last two dogmas were pronounced by Popes, Pope Pius IX in 1854 and Pope Pius XII in 1950 on the Immaculate Conception and the assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary respectively. They are cornerstones ofmariology
To some, this raises the question, why new dogmas are formulated almost 2000 years after the resurrection of Christ. It is Catholic teaching that with Christ and the Apostles, revelation is completed. Dogmas issued after the death of his apostles are not new, but explications of existing faith. Implicit truth are specified as explicit, as it was done in the teachings on the Trinity by the ecumenical councils. Karl Rahner tries to explain this with the allegorical sentence of a husband to his wife "I love you" this surely implies, I am faithful to you.[17]
In the 5th century Vincent of Lérins wrote, in Commonitory, that there should be progress within the Church, "on condition that it be real progress, not alteration of the faith. For progress requires that the subject be enlarged in itself, alteration, that it be transformed into something else. The intelligence, then, the knowledge, the wisdom, [...] of individuals [...] as well of [...] the whole Church, ought, in the course of ages and centuries, to increase and make much and vigorous progress; but yet only in its own kind; that is to say, in the same doctrine, in the same sense, and in the same meaning."[18] Vincent commented on the First Epistle to Timothy (6:20) that Timothy, for Vincent, represented "either generally the Universal Church, or in particular, the whole body of The Prelacy", whose obligation is "to possess or to communicate to others a complete knowledge of religion" called the deposit of faith. According to Vincent, the deposit of faith was entrusted and not "devised: a matter not of wit, but of learning; not of private adoption, but of public tradition." Vincent expounded that you "received gold, give gold in turn," and not a substitute or a counterfeit. Vincent explained that those who are qualified by a "divine gift" should "by wit, by skill, by learning," expound and clarify "that which formerly was believed, though imperfectly apprehended" – to understand "what antiquity venerated without understanding" and teach "the same truths" in a new way.[19] The Church uses this text in its interpretation of dogmatic development. In 1870, the First Vatican Council quoted from Commonitory and stated, in the dogmatic constitution Dei Filius, that "meaning of the sacred dogmas is perpetually to be retained" once they have been declared by the Catholic Church and "there must never be a deviation from that meaning on the specious ground and title of a more profound understanding."[20][21] In 1964, the Second Vatican Council further developed this in Lumen Gentium.[22][c]

Theological certainties[edit]

The Magisterium of the Church is directed to guard, preserve and teach divine truths which God has revealed withinfallibility (de fide). A rejection of Church Magisterial teachings is a de facto rejection of divine revelation. It is considered the mortal sin of heresy if the heretical opinion is held with full knowledge of the Church's opposing dogmas. The infallibility of the Magisterium extends also to teachings which are deduced from such truths (fides ecclesiastica). These Church teachings or "Catholic truths" (veritates catholicae) are not a part of divine revelation, yet are intimately related to it. The rejection of these "secondary" teachings is not heretical, but involves the impairment of full communion with the Catholic Church.[23]
There are three categories of these "secondary" teachings (fides ecclesiastica):
·                    Theological conclusions: (conclusiones theologicae) religious truths, deduced from divine revelation and reason.
·                    Dogmatic facts (facta dogmatica) historical facts, not part of revelation but clearly related to it. For example the legitimacy of the papacy of Pope Benedict XVI, and the Petrine office
·                    Philosophical truths, such as existence of the soul, "freedom of will", philosophical definitions used in dogmas such as transubstantiation

Theological certainty
Divine revelations with the highest degree of certainty, considered Divine revelation (and infallibly asserted)
Church teachings, which have been definitively decided on by the Magisterium in an infallible manner
Church teachings, which are generally accepted as divine revelation but not defined as such by the magisterium
Church teachings which the Magisterium clearly decided for, albeit without claiming infallibility
Teachings which are popular but within the free range of theological research
Teachings with low degree of certainty
A well-reasoned teaching which does, however, not arise to being called probable
Opinions tolerated, but discouraged, within the Catholic Church
In addition, sentences (up to probabilis) are called pious if they resonate in a special manner with the faithful people's religious feeling.

Papal bulls and encyclicals[edit]

The oldest surviving panel icon ofChrist Pantocrator, c. 6th century.
Pope Pius XII stated in Humani generis, that papal encyclicals, even when they are not ex cathedra, can nonetheless be sufficiently authoritative to end theological debate on a particular question:
Nor must it be thought that what is expounded in Encyclical Letters does not of itself demand consent, since in writing such Letters the Popes do not exercise the supreme power of their Teaching Authority. For these matters are taught with the ordinary teaching authority, of which it is true to say: "He who heareth you, heareth me" (Luke 10:16); and generally what is expounded and inculcated in Encyclical Letters already for other reasons appertains to Catholic doctrine. But if the Supreme Pontiffs in their official documents purposely pass judgment on a matter up to that time under dispute, it is obvious that that matter, according to the mind and will of the Pontiffs, cannot be any longer considered a question open to discussion among theologians.[24]
The end of the theological debate is not identical however with dogmatization. Throughout the history of the Church, its representatives have discussed whether a given Papal teaching is the final word or not.
In 1773, Father Lorenzo Ricci, hearing rumours that Pope Clement XIV might dissolve the Jesuit order, wrote "it is most incredible that the Deputy of Christ would state the opposite, what his predecessor Pope Clement XIII stated in the papal bullApostolicum, in which he defended and protected us." When a few days later he was asked if he would accept the papal brief, reverting Clement XIII and dissolving the Jesuit Order, Ricci replied, whatever the Pope decides must be sacred to everybody.[25]
In 1995, questions arose as to whether the apostolic letter Ordinatio Sacerdotalis, which upheld the Catholic teaching that only men may receive ordination, is to be understood as belonging to the deposit of faith. "Wherefore, in order that all doubt may be removed regarding a matter of great importance, a matter which pertains to the Church's divine constitution itself, in virtue of Our ministry of confirming the brethren (cf. Lk 22:32) We declare that the Church has no authority whatsoever to confer priestly ordination on women and that this judgment is to be definitively held by all the Church's faithful".
Critics of Ordinatio Sacerdotalis point out, that it was not promulgated under the extraordinary papal magisterium as an ex cathedra statement, and therefore is not considered infallible in itself.[26] Its contents are, however, considered infallibleunder the ordinary magisterium. Dulles, in a lecture to US bishops, stated that Ordinatio Sacerdotalis is infallible, not because of the apostolic letter or the clarification by Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger alone but because it is based on a wide range of sources, scriptures, the constant tradition of the Church, and the ordinary and universal magisterium of the Church: Pope John Paul II identified a truth infallibly taught over two thousand years by the Church.[26] Many Catholics believe that it meets all the criteria of an infallible ex cathedra pronouncement, even aside from its repetition of universal magisterial teaching. Other Catholics believe the opposite.

Apparitions and revelations[edit]

Statue of Our Lady of Lourdes. The Lourdes apparitions occurred four years after the definition of the dogma of the Immaculate Conception.
Private revelations have taken place within the Church since the very beginning - for example, Our Lady of the Pillar appeared to James the Greater - but are not a part of Apostolic Tradition, since that would imply divine revelation is incomplete, which in turn would imply God can perfect himself.[d]
The church distinguishes between the apparitions within divine revelation - such as the risen Jesus' apparitions to the Apostles and the sign of the woman in the Book of Revelation - and apparitions without divine revelation – such as Our Lady of Fatima and the apparitions to Saint Mary Magdalen – because the age of divine revelation was closed with the completion of the New Testament when the last of the Apostles died.[e]
While Our Lady of the Pillar appeared during the Apostolic Age, the apparition is not a dogma – since it is not part of the Catholic Faith, in the Bible or in Apostolic Tradition – but is a local tradition, which is distinct from Apostolic Tradition.[f]

Ecumenical aspects[edit]

Protestant theology since the reformation was largely negative on the term dogma. This changed in the 20th century, when Karl Barth, in Kirchliche Dogmatik, stated the need for systematic and binding articles of faith.[30] The Creed is the most comprehensive – but not complete[g] – summary of important Catholic dogmas. (It was originally used during baptism ceremonies). The Creed is a part of Sunday liturgy. Because many Protestant Churches have retained the older versions of the Creed, ecumenical working groups are meeting to discuss the Creed as the basis for better understandings of dogma.[31]


1.                          Jump up^ The terms dogma, truth, divine truth, infallible etc., are to be understood as relating only to Catholic doctrine.
2.                          Jump up^ "Q. 554. Could a person who denies only one article of our faith be a Catholic? — A. A person who denies even one article of our faith could not be a Catholic; for truth is one and we must accept it whole and entire or not at all."[5]
3.                          Jump up^ "The entire body of the faithful [...] cannot err in matters of belief" when the people of God manifests "discernment in matters of faith when [...] they show universal agreement in matters of faith and morals." That discernment "is exercised under the guidance of the sacred teaching authority, in faithful and respectful obedience to which the people of God accepts that which is not just the word of men but truly the word of God. Through it, the people of God adheres [...] to the faith given once and for all to the saints, penetrates it more deeply with right thinking, and applies it more fully in its life."[22]
4.                          Jump up^ Christian faith cannot accept "revelations" that claim to surpass or correct the Revelation of which Christ is the fulfillment, as is the case in certain non-Christian religions and also in certain recent sects which base themselves on such "revelations".[27]
5.                          Jump up^ "The Christian economy, therefore, since it is the new and definitive Covenant, will never pass away; and no new public revelation is to be expected before the glorious manifestation of our Lord Jesus Christ." Yet even if Revelation is already complete, it has not been made completely explicit; it remains for Christian faith gradually to grasp its full significance over the course of the centuries.[28]
6.                          Jump up^ Tradition is to be distinguished from the various theological, disciplinary, liturgical or devotional traditions, born in the local churches over time. These are the particular forms, adapted to different places and times, in which the great Tradition is expressed. In the light of Tradition, these traditions can be retained, modified or even abandoned under the guidance of the Church's Magisterium.[29]
7.                          Jump up^ Additional dogmas are in part precisation of clauses contained in the creed. However this may be, all of them follow technically from the clause "and the One, Holy, Catholic and Apostolic Church", in which the claim of the Church to lay down revelation infallibly is contained.


1.                          ^ Jump up to:a b Beinert 90
2.                          Jump up^ Schmaus, I, 54
3.                          Jump up^ Catechism 88
4.                          Jump up^ Schmaus, 54
5.                          Jump up^ Baltimore Catechism. Question 554.
6.                          Jump up^ Dulles, 147
7.                          Jump up^ Ott 5
8.                          ^ Jump up to:a b Heinrich, 52
9.                          Jump up^ Heinrich 52
10.                    Jump up^ Ott, 5
11.                    Jump up^ Ott 6
12.                    Jump up^ Mark 13:31
13.                    Jump up^ Mark Miravalle, 1993, Introduction to Mary, Queenship Publishing ISBN 978-1-882972-06-7 page 51
14.                    Jump up^ Mark Miravalle, 1993 "With Jesus": the story of Mary Co-redemptrix ISBN 1-57918-241-0 page 11
15.                    Jump up^ Lumen Gentium, 62
16.                    ^ Jump up to:a b Beinert 89
17.                    Jump up^ Schmaus, 40
18.                    Jump up^ Commonitorium n. 54
19.                    Jump up^ Commonitorium n. 53
20.                    Jump up^ Dei Filius
21.                    Jump up^ Denzinger, n. 3020
22.                    ^ Jump up to:a b Lumen Gentium. n. 12.
23.                    Jump up^ Fundamentals of Catholic dogma by Ludwig Ott, 1964, Herder, ASIN: B002BZOUAI pages 9-10
24.                    Jump up^ Pope Pius XII (1950). Humani generis. n. 20.
25.                    Jump up^ Ludwig von Pastor, Geschichte der Päpste, XVI,2 1961, 207-208
26.                    ^ Jump up to:a b such as the Catholic theological society of AmericaWeigel, George (2005). Witness to Hope : a biography of Pope John Paul II. New York: Harper. pp. 732–733.
27.                    Jump up^ Catechism 67
28.                    Jump up^ Catechism 66
29.                    Jump up^ Catechism 83
30.                    Jump up^ Zollikon Zürich 1032-1970 Beinert 92
31.                    Jump up^ Beinert 199

Catechism of the Catholic Church

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The Good Shepherd logo is adapted from a Christian tombstone in the catacombs of Domitilla in Rome.[1]
The Catechism of the Catholic Church (or CCC) is a catechism promulgated for the Catholic Church by Pope John Paul II in 1992.[2][3]


·                                 1 Publication history
·                                 2 Doctrinal value
·                                 3 Contents
·                                 5 Derived works
·                                 6 See also
·                                 7 References
·                                 8 Further reading
·                                 9 External links
o                                        9.1 Full CCC text
o                                        9.2 Comments on the CCC
o                                        9.3 Text of the Compendium

Publication history[edit]

The decision to publish a catechism was taken at the Extraordinary Assembly of the Synod of Bishops that was convened by Pope John Paul II on 25 January 1985 for the 20th anniversary of the close of the Second Vatican Council, and in 1986, put a commission composed of 12 bishops and cardinals in charge of the project.[3] The commission was assisted by a committee consisting seven diocesan bishops, experts in theology and catechesis.[3]
The text was approved by John Paul II on 25 June 1992, and promulgated by him on 11 October 1992, the 30th anniversary of the opening of the Second Vatican Council, with his apostolic constitution, Fidei depositum.[3] CardinalGeorges Cottier, Theologian emeritus of the Pontifical Household and now Cardinal-Deacon of Santi Domenico e Sisto the University Church of the Pontifical University of Saint Thomas Aquinas, Angelicum[4] was influential in drafting the encyclical.[5]
It was published in the French language in 1992.[6] Later it was then translated into many other languages. In the United States, the English translation was published by the U.S. bishops in 1994,[7] with a note that it was "subject to revision according to the Latin typical edition (editio typica) when it is published."[8]
On August 15, 1997—the Solemnity of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary— John Paul II promulgated the Latintypical edition, with his apostolic letter, Laetamur Magnopere.[9] The Latin text, which became the official text of reference (editio typica),[10] amended the contents of the provisional French text at a few points.[11] One of the changes consisted in the inclusion of the position on death penalty that is defended in John Paul II's encyclical Evangelium Vitae of 1995.[12]
As a result, the earlier translations from the French into other languages (including English) had to be amended and re-published as "second editions".[13]

Doctrinal value[edit]

In Fidei depositum, John Paul II declared that the Catechism of the Catholic Church was "a valid and legitimate instrument for ecclesial communion and a sure norm for teaching the faith",[3] and stressed that it "is not intended to replace the local catechisms duly approved by the ecclesiastical authorities, the diocesan Bishops and the Episcopal Conferences".[3]


A catechism has been defined as "a summary of principles, often in question-and-answer format".[14] Documents of religious instruction have been written since the beginning of Christianity and the catechism is typically an assemblage of these smaller documents into one large compilation of Church doctrine and teachings.
The Catechism of the Catholic Church, for which the usual English-language abbreviation is CCC, is instead a source on which to base such catechisms (e.g. Youcat and the United States Catholic Catechism for Adults) and other expositions of Catholic doctrine, called a "major catechism." It was given, as stated in the Apostolic Constitution Fidei depositum,[15] with which its publication was ordered, "that it may be a sure and authentic reference text for teaching Catholic doctrine and particularly for preparing local catechisms." The CCC is in fact not in question and answer format.
CCC is arranged in four principal parts:
·                    The Profession of Faith (the Apostle's Creed)
·                    The Celebration of the Christian Mystery (the Sacred Liturgy, especially the sacraments)
·                    Life in Christ (including The Ten Commandments in Roman Catholic theology)
·                    Christian Prayer (including The Lord's Prayer)
This scheme is often referred to as the “Four Pillars” of the Faith. The contents are abundantly footnoted with references to sources of the teaching, in particular the Scriptures, the Church Fathers, and the Ecumenical Councils [16] and other authoritative Catholic statements, principally those issued by recent popes.
The section on Scripture in the CCC (nos. 101–141) recovers the Patristic tradition of "spiritual exegesis" as further developed through the scholastic doctrine of the "four senses." This return to spiritual exegesis is based on the Second Vatican Council's 1965 "Dei Verbum: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation",[17] which taught that Scripture should be "read and interpreted in light of the same Spirit by whom it was written" (Dei Verbum 12). The CCC amplifies Dei Verbum by specifying that the necessary spiritual interpretation should be sought through the four senses of Scripture (nos. 111, 113, 115–119),[18] which encompass the literal sense and the three spiritual senses (allegorical, moral, and anagogical).
The literal sense (no. 116) pertains to the meaning of the words themselves, including any figurative meanings. The spiritual senses (no. 117) pertain to the significance of the things (persons, places, objects or events) denoted by the words. Of the three spiritual senses, the allegorical sense is foundational. It relates persons, events, and institutions of earlier covenants to those of later covenants, and especially to the New Covenant. Building on the allegorical sense, the moral sense instructs in regard to action, and the anagogical sense points to man's final destiny. The teaching of the CCCon Scripture has encouraged the recent pursuit of covenantal theology, an approach that employs the four senses to structure salvation history via the biblical covenants.


American Catholic bishops have stated that, though theological opinion was not intended to be a part of CCC,[19] it in fact "does not distinguish between matters of faith and theological opinion."[20]
In 1992, Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) noted:
It clearly show[s] that the problem of what we must do as human beings, of how we should live our lives so that we and the world may become just, is the essential problem of our day, and basically of all ages. After the fall of ideologies, the problem of man—the moral problem—is presented to today's context in a totally new way: What should we do? How does life become just? What can give us and the whole world a future which is worth living? Since the catechism treats these questions, it is a book which interests many people, far beyond purely theological or ecclesial circles.[21]

Derived works[edit]

The Compendium of the Catechism of the Catholic Church was published in 2005, and the first edition in English in 2006. It is a more concise and dialogic version of the CCC. The text of the Compendium is available in fourteen languages on the Vatican website, which also gives the text of the Catechism itself in nine languages.[22]
YouCat, a catechism for youth, based on the Catechism of the Catholic Church and its Compendium, was published in 2011. The Vatican has acknowledged that some translations of YouCat contain errors regarding Church teaching on the status of other religions, contraception and euthanasia, whether due to simple error or poor translations.[23]

See also[edit]

Portal icon
·                    Catholic Catechist
·                    Catholic Directory
·                    Catholic spirituality
·                    Glossary of the Catholic Church
·                    History of the Catholic Church since 1962
·                    Index of Catholic Church articles
·                    Outline of Catholicism
·                    Pastoral care
·                    Second Vatican Council
·                    Timeline of the Catholic Church
·                    Universal call to holiness
·                    Vocational Discernment in the Catholic Church


1.                          Jump up^ From the Copyright Information, pg. iv.
2.                          Jump up^ "Table of Contents". Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition. Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 2012. Retrieved2 October 2014.
3.                          ^ Jump up to:a b c d e f "Fidei Depositum". Libreria Editrice Vaticana. 1992-10-11. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
4.                          Jump up^ "Titular Churches of the new Cardinals", Consistory of October 21, 2003. Accessed 1 February 2014.;"Cottier, Card. Georges Marie Martin, O.P.", College of Cardinals, Biographical notes. Accessed 1 February 2014.
5.                          Jump up^ In an interview in 30Days, 3-2004 Cottier remarked: "Going back to the early years, the first 'big' text I worked on was the social encyclical Centesimus annus. And then the Ut unum sint on ecumenicalism, the moral encyclical Veritatis splendor, and the Fides et ratio… also the Catechism of the Catholic Church". Accessed 1 February 2014.
6.                          Jump up^ Catéchisme de l'Église Catholique. Tours/Paris: Mame/Plon. 1992. ISBN 2-266-00585-5.
7.                          Jump up^ copyright 1994, United States Catholic Conference, Inc., Libreria Editrice Vaticana
8.                          Jump up^ Copyright Information, p. ii.)

9.                          Jump up^ The Latin-text copyright is 1994, 1997, Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Citta del Vaticano.
10.                    Jump up^ "Latin Edition of Catechism Promulgated". L'Osservatore Romano. 1997-09-17. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
11.                    Jump up^ "Modifications from the Editio Typica". Amministrazione Del Patrimonio Della Sede Apostolica. Retrieved2007-10-05.
12.                    Jump up^ "The death penalty and the catechism". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 12 May 2012.
13.                    Jump up^ In the U.S., the bishops then published a new English translation, from the official Latin text. (English translation of the Catechism of the Catholic Church: Modifications from the Editio Typica, copyright 1997, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.—Libreria Editrice Vaticana.) The U.S. bishops added a "Glossary and Index Analyticus" (copyright 2000, United States Catholic Conference, Inc.) and published the new translation, with glossary and index, as the Catechism of the Catholic Church, Second Edition,"revised in accordance with the official Latin text promulgated by John Paul II". (From the title page.)
14.                    Jump up^ "Hypertext Webster Gateway at". Retrieved 2014-07-31.
15.                    Jump up^ "Fidei Depositum – John Paul II – Apostolic Constitution (11 October 1992)". Retrieved 2014-07-31.
16.                    Jump up^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church". 2013-04-16. Retrieved 2014-07-31.
17.                    Jump up^ "Dei Verbum: Dogmatic Constitution on Divine Revelation"
18.                    Jump up^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church - IntraText" 111, 113, 115–119.
19.                    Jump up^ Levada, Archbishop William J. (1994-02-07). "The New Catechism: An Overview". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Office for the Catechism. Archived from the original on 2007-09-29. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
20.                    Jump up^ Wrenn, Michael J.; Whitehead, Kenneth D. (1996). Flawed Expectations: The Reception of the Catechism of the Catholic Church. Ignatius Press. p. 208. ISBN 0-89870-591-6.
21.                    Jump up^ "The Catechism of the Catholic Church in Context". United States Conference of Catholic Bishops Office for the Catechism. 1992-12-09. Archived from the original on 2007-09-26. Retrieved 2007-10-05.
22.                    Jump up^ Catechism of the Catholic Church, Archive at vatican.vawebsite. Accessed 31 January 2014.
23.                    Jump up^ "Youth Catechism Also Wrong on Euthanasia, Other Religions, Vatican Admits". Accessed 31 January 2014.

Jude Danmbaezue
Most Naija youths are lazy. Dont just like any of my wise / true or informative posts, make your input also & then Send to at least 50 of your friends. I permit you to copy and paste those you like on your FB site also. DO NOT LAZY ABOUT LIKE LAZY POLITICIANS,
* The assertion THE YOUTHS ARE LEADERS OF TOMORROW means GOOD CITIZENSHIP IS LEARNT so do not only sing & jump around at NIGERIAN IDOL borrowed whiteman's culture. Their own democracies have lasted 500 years or more AND IT WAS THE YOUTHS CONTRIBUTIONS THAT MADE THEIR COUNTRIES SUPER POWERS. When will you the tomorrow leaders invent electronic gadgets, cellulars phones, new scientific laws, aeroplanes, war ships, bombers, etc etc IS IT BY FAILING WAEC, NECO, EXPOS, RAPES, PROSTITUTION, KIDNAPPING, ARMED ROBBERY, SPORTS, MUSIC, DANCING etc all of you indulge in ??? ... WAKE UP ALL YOUTHS ! !
* + * A fool will remain a fool BUT s/he wil blame Elders for not warning them, Count your teeth with your tongue.
Type into Google search engine KING LEOPOLD II LETTER TO MISSIONARIES IN 1883, .. to see why Africans can only READ & BELIEVE then you will be enlightened enough to appreciate WHY WE ELDERS NEED TO really erase the mis-education so we can then REORIENT OUR YOUTH. We must teach them to READ & REASON which the whites never taught us. Watch our half informed elders repeat like parrots I BELIEVE, I BELIEVE in every TV news & discourse, then, OVER USED CLICHES e.g. *To God be the Glory, (bad english, is neither a sentence nor a clause)
*Dividends of Democracy ( thief thief ole ole barawo barawo politicians looting billions or trillions from the nations treasury, stolen and starched away in foreign banks) * Malachi 7/7, bring your tithes to the Lord ( demonic prosperity gospel preachers buying jet planes whereas Jesus never own a donkey & was buried in a BORROWED GRAVE* the list is Endless and the WHITES laugh to scorn ,... Black monkeys that go to Jerusalem & Mecca to die in stampedes ! ! ARE THESE WHAT YOU YOUTHS THINK WILL DEVELOP YOUR NATION TO BECOME LIKE, China, Malaysia, Cuba, Indonesia, Vietnam etc etc then JAPAN, FRANCE, RUSSIA, BRITAIN & USA ? ?
Letter from King Leopold II of Belgium to Colonial Missionaries, 18831
“Reverends, Fathers and Dear Compatriots: The task that is given to fulfill is very delicate
and requires much tact. You will go certainly to evangelize, but your evangelization must inspire
above all Belgium interests. Your principal objective in our mission in the Congo is never to teach
the niggers to know God, this they know already. They speak and submit to a Mungu, one Nzambi,
one Nzakomba, and what else I don't know. They know that to kill, to sleep with someone else's
wife, to lie and to insult is bad. Have courage to admit it; you are not going to teach them what they
know already. Your essential role is to facilitate the task of administrators and industrials, which
means you will go to interpret the gospel in the way it will be the best to protect your interests in
that part of the world. For these things, you have to keep watch on disinteresting our savages from
the richness that is plenty [in their underground. To avoid that, they get interested in it, and make
you murderous] competition and dream one day to overthrow you.
Your knowledge of the gospel will allow you to find texts ordering, and encouraging your
followers to love poverty, like “Happier are the poor because they will inherit the heaven” and, “It's
very difficult for the rich to enter the kingdom of God.” You have to detach from them and make
them disrespect everything which gives courage to affront us. I make reference to their Mystic
System and their war fetish – warfare protection – which they pretend not to want to abandon, and
you must do everything in your power to make it disappear.
Your action will be directed essentially to the younger ones, for they won't revolt when the
recommendation of the priest is contradictory to their parent's teachings. The children have to learn
to obey what the missionary recommends, who is the father of their soul. You must singularly insist
on their total submission and obedience, avoid developing the spirit in the schools, teach students to
read and not to reason. There, dear patriots, are some of the principles that you must apply. You will
find many other books, which will be given to you at the end of this conference. Evangelize the
niggers so that they stay forever in submission to the white colonialists, so they never revolt against
the restraints they are undergoing. Recite every day – “Happy are those who are weeping because
the kingdom of God is for them.”
1 - The letter which follows is Courtesy of Dr. Vera Nobles and Dr.
Chiedozie Okoro. 
Letter from King Leopold II of Belgium to Colonial Missionaries, 1883 2
Convert always the blacks by using the whip. Keep their women in nine months of
submission to work freely for us. Force them to pay you in sign of recognition-goats, chicken or
eggs-every time you visit their villages. And make sure that niggers never become rich. Sing every
day that it's impossible for the rich to enter heaven. Make them pay tax each week at Sunday mass.
Use the money supposed for the poor, to build flourishing business centres. Institute a confessional
system, which allows you to be good detectives denouncing any black that has a different
consciousness contrary to that of the decision-maker. Teach the niggers to forget their heroes and to
adore only ours. Never present a chair to a black that comes to visit you. Don't give him more than
one cigarette. Never invite him for dinner even if he gives you a chicken every time you arrive at
his house.
“The above speech which shows the real intention of the Christian missionary journey in
Africa was exposed to the world by Mr. Moukouani Muikwani Bukoko, born in the Congo in 1915,
and who in 1935 while working in the Congo, bought a second hand Bible from a Belgian priest
who forgot the speech in the Bible. – Dr. Chiedozie Okoro
We should note:
1] that all missionaries carried out, and still carry out, that mandate. We are only lucky to
have found King Leopold's articulation of the aim of all Christian imperialist missionaries to Africa.
2] Even the African converts who today manage the older churches in Africa (the priests,
bishops, Archbishops, Cardinals etc of the Roman and Protestant sects), and especially also those
who evangelize Born-Again Christianity, still serve the same mandate. Which is why they
demonize African gods and Anglicize African names, and drop the names of African deities which
form part of African names; and still attack and demolish the African shrines that have managed to
survive, e.g. Okija.
3] Those Africans who voluntarily converted to Christianity before the colonial conquest
such as Affonso I of the BaKongo in the 15th century probably did not discern the purpose of the
brand of Christianity that was supplied to them. Which was probably why they fell easy prey to the
missionaries and the white traders and pirates who followed them.
But their Japanese counterparts probably did discern the game, even without access to some
version of Leopold's letter. But even if the Japanese Shoguns did not intuit what Leopold makes
explicit, they clearly realized the danger of Japanese converts to Christianity forming a fifth column
within Japanese society and state, a fifth column loyal to their co-religionists in Europe. To rid
Japan of that danger, in the late 16th century, the Shoguns began their expulsion of Portuguese and
Spanish missionaries on the grounds that they were forcing Japanese to become Christian, teaching
their disciples to wreck temples, taking and trading slaves, etc. Then, in 1596, it became clear to the
Japanese authorities that Christianization had been a prelude to Spanish conquest of other lands; and 
Letter from King Leopold II of Belgium to Colonial Missionaries, 1883 3
it quickly dawned on them that a fifth column loyal to Rome and controlled by the priests of a
foreign religion was a clear and present danger to the sovereignty of a newly unified Japan. Soon
after, the persecution and suppression of Japanese Christians began. Early in the 17th century,
sensing the danger from a creed that taught obedience to foreign priests rather than the Japanese
authorities, all missionaries were ordered to leave and all Japanese were ordered to register at the
Buddhist temples. When Japanese Christians took part in a rebellion, foreign priests were executed,
the Spanish were expelled and Japanese Christians were forbidden to travel abroad. After another
rebellion, largely by Christians, was put down, the Japanese Christians were suppressed and their
descendants were put under close state surveillance for centuries thereafter. In the 1640s all
Japanese suspected of being Christians were ruthlessly exterminated. Thus did Japan, by 1650, save
itself from the first European attempt to mentally subvert, conquer and colonize it.
4] The African captives who were taken abroad and enslaved, and the Africans at home after
the European conquest, having already been forcibly deprived of their autonomy, were in no
political position to resist Christianization. Thus the Christianity still practised in all of the African
American diaspora, just as that in the African homeland since the start of the 20th century,
continues to carry out the Leopoldian mandate.
Hence, for example, whereas the White Born-Agains of the USA, when in the US Navy
ships in WWII, sang:
“Praise the Lord,
And pass the ammunition,” the attitude of African Born-Again converts today is best
summed up as:
“Praise the Lord,
And lie down for the manna.”
Thanks to a century or more of this Leopold-mandated missionary mind control, African
Christians are not an activist, self-helping, economically engaged, politically resolute, let alone
militant bunch. Hence their putting up with all manner of mistreatment and exploitation by their
misrulers, white and black. The most they are disposed to do to their misrulers is to admonish them
to “Fear God!” – as one protester's miserable placard read in last week's Lagos demonstration
against the latest of the murderous fuel price hikes by the OBJ Misgovernment. The idea of an
uprising to tame their misrulers is alien to the religiously opiated frame of mind of the Nigerians.
5] The lesson in the contrast between an Africa that the Christian missionaries brainwashed
and subverted, and a Japan where this brainwashing and subversion was forcibly prevented, is stark
and clear. What then must Africans of today begin to do to save themselves from 
brainwashing by
their White World enemies here on earth? – That is the question.
5] The lesson in the contrast between an Africa that the Christian missionaries brainwashed
and subverted, and a Japan where this brainwashing and subversion was forcibly prevented, is stark
and clear. What then must Africans of today begin to do to save themselves from brainwashing by
their White World enemies here on earth? – That is the question.
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·                                 Comments
o                                                  Jude Danmbaezue
Jude Danmbaezue The assertion THE YOUTHS ARE LEADERS OF TOMORROW means GOOD CITIZENSHIP IS LEARNT so do not only sing & jump around at NIGERIAN IDOL borrowed whiteman's culture. Their own democracies have lasted 500 years or more AND THE YOUTHS THERE CONTRIBUTIONS THA...See More
o                                                  Princess Ireti Ogunleye
Princess Ireti Ogunleye Sir you have said well and you've seen the whole thing as its happening we as the youth will try our best to change our imagination, then we can explore and make a positive change.
o                                                  Nonyelum Asoegwu
Nonyelum Asoegwu Many indolent youths will attack this post because the truth is bitter most times.
o                                                  Jude Danmbaezue
Jude Danmbaezue A fool will remain a fool BUT s/he wil blame Elders for not warning them, Count your teeth with your tongue. Type KING LEOPOLD II LETTER TO MISSIONARIES IN 1883 to appreciate WHY WE ELDERS NEED TO REORIENT OUR YOUTH. We must teach them to READ & REASON...See More
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o                                                  Jude Danmbaezue
Jude Danmbaezue READ THIS IN DETAILS AND POST TO YOUR FRIENDS, ...........................................................

o                                                  Jude Danmbaezue
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Can Genetics Play a Role in How Many Carbs You Can Eat?

Ever wonder why some people can eat starchy foods all day long and not gain an ounce of weight, where as others swear that just the thought of eating something slightly starchy make them gain weight?  Well, now we know why…
Genetic polymorphism is the new buzzword for why some folks can eat carbs all day and not gain weight or suffer the blood sugar highs and lows that some people do.
When it comes to carbs, genetic polymorphism refers to the way the salivary amylase gene copies are associated with the risk of obesity in humans.  In other words, depending on your cultural heritage and the diet of your ancestors, you may be genetically predisposed to be tolerant or not tolerant to eating carbs.
How Genetics Plays a Role
Genetic polymorphisms are natural variations in our DNA that show up in our bodies or our behavior.  Humans have evolved to eat a wide range of macro and micronutrients.  Because people have lived in different climates and geographies we’ve had different food sources and our bodies have adapted to the foods that our ancestors ate the most of.  If your ancestors ate more carbs chances are good you have more copies of the AMY1 gene.
The AMY1 gene is strongly associated with obesity.  The AMY1 gene affects a person’s ability to make amylase which is an enzyme that aids in the digestion of starch.  People can have anywhere from 2 to 15 copies of the AMY1 gene.  Researchers estimate that for each additional copy of the gene people are at a 20% less risk of becoming obese.  How many copies of the gene each person carries vary greatly.  People with fewer AMY1 genes are also at greater risk of developing insulin resistance and diabetes.  Researchers have known for years that cultures that ate diets high in starch had more AMY1 copy numbers along with more amylase in their saliva.  Cultures with a tradition of agriculture like Japan have an average of 7 copies of AMY1 while cultures in the arctic circle with a high protein/high fat diet have an average of 4 copies of AMY1.
Breaking it Down
People with higher levels of the amylase enzyme are better able to digest carbohydrates.  The more amylase in your saliva, the more carbs you can eat without gaining weight.  This explains why some people become obese while consuming a similar amount of carbohydrates to those who stay thin.  Carbohydrates are digested and used differently from person to person.  Amylase begins to work on starches in the mouth as soon as you begin to eat.  Amylase breaks down starches into sugar, making them immediately available for energy.  When eaten in moderation and within recommended guidelines, there’s no evidence to suggest that carbohydrates are unhealthy for those who tolerate them well.  The way different people tolerate carbs depends upon many other non-genetic factors as well, including overall health, diet & exercise.
Making Carbs Work for You
If you’re one of the lucky ones that can tolerate carbs really well you may be able to get away with eating more carbs.  But that doesn’t mean you should be eating refined, processed carbs either.  No matter what your genetic carb tolerance factor may be, you should always eat as much real whole foods as possible and minimize or eliminate any refined and processed foods. 
Here’s the deal… just because you look good on the outside does not mean you’re healthy on the inside.
Now, if you’re like most people I know and is not genetically inclined to be able to eat as much carbs… here are some tricks you can implement into your diet that should help:
  • Eat slowly:  Taking the time to chew your food thoroughly will allow the amylase in your body to break down the starches into sugars.
  • Choose whole grains (gluten-free preferred): Although it’s best to avoid grains, if you’re going to eat grains, it’s best to go with whole grains, preferably gluten free and avoid refined and processed carbohydrates.  Whole grains have more dietary fiber which lowers your insulin and minimizes your fat storage.  BTW, it’s important to keep in mind, recent studies have found that gluten can cause problems, even for people that have tested negative for gluten sensitivity
  • Choose low glycemic index fruits:  Fruits with a low glycemic index won’t spike your blood sugar levels as much, thereby lowering your insulin and ultimately decreasing fat storage.  It also helps reduces your risk of insulin resistance and diabetes.
  • Eat raw vegetables and fruits:  Raw veggies and fruits have more digestive enzymes than processed foods, which make digestion more efficient and it has much higher fiber content which helps slow the absorption of sugar.  Slower sugar absorption means lower insulin and hence less fat.
  • Keep your digestive flora populated: Supplementing with probiotics and eating fermented foods will help keep your digestive tract healthy.  Properly functioning digestive system is key to optimum hormonal function which helps lower excessive fat storage.
  • Eat most of your carbs after exercising.  After your workout is the best time to eat carbs since majority of the sugar from carbohydrates will be used to replenish your depleted muscle glycogen.  The best type of workouts are short bursts of high intensity exercises that really work your muscles like HIIT or circuit weight training.  The more you use up your glycogen, the better your body will utilize carbs as energy and not store it as fat.
While genetic does play a role in how much carbs your body can tolerate, there are ways to make carb consumption work for you.  That being said it’s always best to stick to a diet that’s conducive for you.  A diet that optimizes your health is the best diet for you, whether it’s low carb or not.
Stay Lean,
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