It involves two major research tasks, namely: (i) the construction of instruments and procedures for measurement; and (ii) the development and refinement of theoretical approaches to measurement. Those who practice psychometrics are known as psychometricians. All psychometricians possess a specific psychometric qualification, and while many are clinical psychologists, others work as human resources or learning and development professionals.
THE FOLLOWING IS JUST AN ELEMENTARY INTRODUCTION TO THE SUBJECT FOR NEOPHYTE STUDENTS BY
Psychological testing has come from two streams of thought: one, from Darwin, Galton, and Cattell on the measurement of individual differences, and the second, from Herbart, Weber, Fechner, and Wundt and their psychophysical measurements of a similar construct. The second set of individuals and their research is what has led to the development of experimental psychology, and standardized testing.
Charles Darwin was the inspiration behind Sir Francis Galton who led to the creation of psychometrics. In 1859, Charles Darwin published his book "The Origin of Species", which pertained to individual differences in animals. This book discussed how individual members in a species differ and how they possess characteristics that are more adaptive and successful or less adaptive and less successful. Those who are adaptive and successful are the ones that survive and give way to the next generation, who would be just as or more adaptive and successful. This idea, studied previously in animals, led to Galton's interest and study of human beings and how they differ one from another, and more importantly, how to measure those differences.
Galton wrote a book entitled "Hereditary Genius" about different characteristics that people possess and how those characteristics make them more "fit" than others. Today these differences, such as sensory and motor functioning (reaction time, visual acuity, and physical strength) are important domains of scientific psychology. Much of the early theoretical and applied work in psychometrics was undertaken in an attempt to measure intelligence. Francis Galton, often referred to as "the father of psychometrics," devised and included mental tests among his anthropometric measures. James McKeen Cattell, who is considered a pioneer of psychometrics went on to extend Galton's work. Cattell also coined the term mental test, and is responsible for the research and knowledge which ultimately led to the development of modern tests. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2010)
The origin of psychometrics also has connections to the related field of psychophysics. Around the same time that Darwin, Galton, and Cattell were making their discoveries, J.E. Herbart was also interested in "unlocking the mysteries of human consciousness" through the scientific method. (Kaplan & Saccuzzo, 2010) Herbart was responsible for creating mathematical models of the mind, which were influential in educational practices in years to come.
Following Herbart, E.H. Weber built upon Herbart's work and tried to prove the existence of a psychological threshold saying that a minimum stimulus was necessary to activate a sensory system. After Weber, G.T. Fechner expanded upon the knowledge he gleaned from Herbart and Weber, to devise the law that the strength of a sensation grows as the logarithm of the stimulus intensity. A follower of Weber and Fechner, Wilhelm Wundt is credited with founding the science of psychology. It is Wundt's influence that paved the way for others to develop psychological testing.
The psychometrician L. L. Thurstone, founder and first president of the Psychometric Society in 1936, developed and applied a theoretical approach to measurement referred to as the law of comparative judgment, an approach that has close connections to the psychophysical theory of Ernst Heinrich Weber and Gustav Fechner. In addition, Spearman and Thurstone both made important contributions to the theory and application of factor analysis, a statistical method developed and used extensively in psychometrics. In the late 1950s, Leopold Szondi made an historical and epistemological assessment of the impact of statistical thinking onto psychology during previous few decades: "in the last decades, the specifically psychological thinking has been almost completely suppressed and removed, and replaced by a statistical thinking. Precisely here we see the cancer of testology and testomania of today."
More recently, psychometric theory has been applied in the measurement of personality, attitudes, and beliefs, and academic achievement. Measurement of these unobservable phenomena is difficult, and much of the research and accumulated science in this discipline has been developed in an attempt to properly define and quantify such phenomena. Critics, including practitioners in the physical sciences and social activists, have argued that such definition and quantification is impossibly difficult, and that such measurements are often misused, such as with psychometric personality tests used in employment procedures:
"For example, an employer wanting someone for a role requiring consistent attention to repetitive detail will probably not want to give that job to someone who is very creative and gets bored easily."
The definition of measurement in the social sciences has a long history. A currently widespread definition, proposed by Stanley Smith Stevens (1946), is that measurement is "the assignment of numerals to objects or events according to some rule." This definition was introduced in the paper in which Stevens proposed four levels of measurement. Although widely adopted, this definition differs in important respects from the more classical definition of measurement adopted in the physical sciences, which is that measurement is the numerical estimation and expression of the magnitude of one quantity relative to another(Michell, 1997).
Indeed, Stevens's definition of measurement was put forward in response to the British Ferguson Committee, whose chair, A. Ferguson, was a physicist. The committee was appointed in 1932 by the British Association for the Advancement of Science to investigate the possibility of quantitatively estimating sensory events. Although its chair and other members were physicists, the committee also included several psychologists. The committee's report highlighted the importance of the definition of measurement. While Stevens's response was to propose a new definition, which has had considerable influence in the field, this was by no means the only response to the report. Another, notably different, response was to accept the classical definition, as reflected in the following statement:
Measurement in psychology and physics are in no sense different. Physicists can measure when they can find the operations by which they may meet the necessary criteria; psychologists have but to do the same. They need not worry about the mysterious differences between the meaning of measurement in the two sciences. (Reese, 1943, p. 49)
These divergent responses are reflected in alternative approaches to measurement. For example, methods based on covariance matrices are typically employed on the premise that numbers, such as raw scores derived from assessments, are measurements. Such approaches implicitly entail Stevens's definition of measurement, which requires only that numbers are assignedaccording to some rule. The main research task, then, is generally considered to be the discovery of associations between scores, and of factors posited to underlie such associations.
On the other hand, when measurement models such as the Rasch model are employed, numbers are not assigned based on a rule. Instead, in keeping with Reese's statement above, specific criteria for measurement are stated, and the goal is to construct procedures or operations that provide data that meet the relevant criteria. Measurements are estimated based on the models, and tests are conducted to ascertain whether the relevant criteria have been met.
INSTRUMENTS AND PROCEDURES
The first psychometric instruments were designed to measure the concept of intelligence. The best known historical approach involved the Stanford-Binet IQ test, developed originally by the French psychologist Alfred Binet. Intelligence tests are useful tools for various purposes. An alternative conception of intelligence is that cognitive capacities within individuals are a manifestation of a general component, or general intelligence factor, as well as cognitive capacity specific to a given domain.
Psychometrics is applied widely in educational assessment to measure abilities in domains such as reading, writing, and mathematics. The main approaches in applying tests in these domains have been Classical Test Theory and the more recent Item Response Theory and Rasch measurement models. These latter approaches permit joint scaling of persons and assessment items, which provides a basis for mapping of developmental continua by allowing descriptions of the skills displayed at various points along a continuum. Such approaches provide powerful information regarding the nature of developmental growth within various domains.
Attitudes have also been studied extensively using psychometric approaches. A common method in the measurement of attitudes is the use of the Likert scale. An alternative method involves the application of unfolding measurement models, the most general being the Hyperbolic Cosine Model (Andrich & Luo, 1993).
Psychometricians have developed a number of different measurement theories. These include classical test theory (CTT) and item response theory (IRT).An approach which seems mathematically to be similar to IRT but also quite distinctive, in terms of its origins and features, is represented by the Rasch modelfor measurement. The development of the Rasch model, and the broader class of models to which it belongs, was explicitly founded on requirements of measurement in the physical sciences.
Psychometricians have also developed methods for working with large matrices of correlations and covariances. Techniques in this general tradition include: factor analysis, a method of determining the underlying dimensions of data; multidimensional scaling, a method for finding a simple representation for data with a large number of latent dimensions; and data clustering, an approach to finding objects that are like each other. All these multivariate descriptive methods try to distill large amounts of data into simpler structures. More recently, structural equation modeling and path analysis represent more sophisticated approaches to working with large covariance matrices. These methods allow statistically sophisticated models to be fitted to data and tested to determine if they are adequate fits.
One of the main deficiencies in various factor analyses is a lack of consensus in cutting points for determining the number of latent factors. A usual procedure is to stop factoring when eigenvalues drop below one because the original sphere shrinks. The lack of the cutting points concerns other multivariate methods, also.
Key concepts in classical test theory are reliability and validity. A reliable measure is one that measures a construct consistently across time, individuals, and situations. A valid measure is one that measures what it is intended to measure. Reliability is necessary, but not sufficient, for validity.
Both reliability and validity can be assessed statistically. Consistency over repeated measures of the same test can be assessed with the Pearson correlation coefficient, and is often called test-retest reliability. Similarly, the equivalence of different versions of the same measure can be indexed by a Pearson correlation, and is called equivalent forms reliability or a similar term.
Internal consistency, which addresses the homogeneity of a single test form, may be assessed by correlating performance on two halves of a test, which is termed split-half reliability; the value of this Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient for two half-tests is adjusted with the Spearman–Brown prediction formula to correspond to the correlation between two full-length tests.Perhaps the most commonly used index of reliability is Cronbach's α, which is equivalent to the mean of all possible split-half coefficients. Other approaches include the intra-class correlation, which is the ratio of variance of measurements of a given target to the variance of all targets.
There are a number of different forms of validity. Criterion-related validity can be assessed by correlating a measure with a criterion measure known to be valid. When the criterion measure is collected at the same time as the measure being validated the goal is to establish concurrent validity; when the criterion is collected later the goal is to establish predictive validity. A measure has construct validity if it is related to measures of other constructs as required by theory. Content validity is a demonstration that the items of a test are drawn from the domain being measured. In a personnel selection example, test content is based on a defined statement or set of statements of knowledge, skill, ability, or other characteristics obtained from a job analysis.
Item response theory models the relationship between latent traits and responses to test items. Among other advantages, IRT provides a basis for obtaining an estimate of the location of a test-taker on a given latent trait as well as the standard error of measurement of that location. For example, a university student's knowledge of history can be deduced from his or her score on a university test and then be compared reliably with a high school student's knowledge deduced from a less difficult test. Scores derived by classical test theory do not have this characteristic, and assessment of actual ability (rather than ability relative to other test-takers) must be assessed by comparing scores to those of a "norm group" randomly selected from the population. In fact, all measures derived from classical test theory are dependent on the sample tested, while, in principle, those derived from item response theory are not.
Standards of quality
The considerations of validity and reliability typically are viewed as essential elements for determining the quality of any test. However, professional and practitioner associations frequently have placed these concerns within broader contexts when developing standards and making overall judgments about the quality of any test as a whole within a given context. A consideration of concern in many applied research settings is whether or not the metric of a given psychological inventory is meaningful or arbitrary.
Each publication presents and elaborates a set of standards for use in a variety of educational settings. The standards provide guidelines for designing, implementing, assessing and improving the identified form of evaluation. Each of the standards has been placed in one of four fundamental categories to promote educational evaluations that are proper, useful, feasible, and accurate. In these sets of standards, validity and reliability considerations are covered under the accuracy topic. For example, the student accuracy standards help ensure that student evaluations will provide sound, accurate, and credible information about student learning and performance.
Non-human psychometrics: animals and machines
Psychometrics addresses human abilities, attitudes, traits and educational evolution. Notably, the study of behavior, mental processes and abilities of non-human animals is usually addressed by comparative psychology, or with a continuum between non-human animals and the rest of animals by evolutionary psychology. Nonetheless there are some advocators for a more gradual transition between the approach taken for humans and the approach taken for (non-human) animals.
The evaluation of abilities, traits and learning evolution of machines has been mostly unrelated to the case of humans and non-human animals, with specific approaches in the area of artificial intelligence. A more integrated approach, under the name of universal psychometrics, has also been proposed.
Andrich, D. & Luo, G. (1993). "A hyperbolic cosine model for unfolding dichotomous single-stimulus responses". Applied Psychological Measurement 17 (3): 253–276. doi:10.1177/014662169301700307.
Michell, J. (1999). Measurement in Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Rasch, G. (1960/1980). Probabilistic models for some intelligence and attainment tests. Copenhagen, Danish Institute for Educational Research), expanded edition (1980) with foreword and afterword by B.D. Wright. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Reese, T.W. (1943). "The application of the theory of physical measurement to the measurement of psychological magnitudes, with three experimental examples". Psychological Monographs 55: 1–89.
Thurstone, L.L. (1927). "A law of comparative judgement". Psychological Review 34 (4): 278–286. doi:10.1037/h0070288.
Thurstone, L.L. (1929). The Measurement of Psychological Value. In T.V. Smith and W.K. Wright (Eds.), Essays in Philosophy by Seventeen Doctors of Philosophy of the University of Chicago. Chicago: Open Court.
Thurstone, L.L. (1959). The Measurement of Values. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Many graduate employers use psychometric tests as part of the selection process for their graduate schemes. Use our quick guide to find out what to expect, and have a go at some practice tests.
If you apply for a place on a graduate scheme with a big graduate employer, chances are you’ll be asked to take psychometric tests. They are often used as a filtering mechanism at an early stage in the recruitment process.
As with any kind of test, you can improve your performance by knowing what to expect and by practising. As long as you’ve done some preparation beforehand, you can approach psychometric tests confident in the knowledge that you’re as well placed to succeed as anyone else.
Pychometric tests are impersonal, standardised and objective, and practice tests are readily available. The psychometric test is a level playing field: employers value them because they are a fair way of comparing different candidates’ strengths regardless of educational background.
This article will explain what to expect from the different kinds of tests and which tests are used by some of the most popular graduate employers. We’ll also give you links to free psychometric tests from some of the key organisations that devise these assessments for graduate recruiters, plus tips for preparation and for doing your best on the day.
When you could be tested in the recruitment process
Psychometric tests may be used at different stages of the graduate selection process:
After you submit your online application form.
Alongside a first interview.
At a later stage, possibly with a second interview or as part of an assessment centre. You may be re-tested at this point to confirm the results of earlier tests.
Types of test; ability, aptitude and personality
Ability tests measure either general or particular skills, capability and acumen. This category of test can include:
Numerical tests: assess how well you interpret data, graphs, charts or statistics. Can test basic arithmetic.
Verbal reasoning tests: assess how you well you understand written information and evaluate arguments and statements.
Non-verbal reasoning tests: assess how well you follow diagrammatic information or spot patterns. Can check spatial awareness. Diagrammatic or abstract reasoning tests are sometimes described as inductive reasoning tests.
Logical reasoning tests: assess how well you follow through to a conclusion given basic information, or using your current knowledge or experience. These include deductive reasoning tests, in which you are given information or rules to apply in order to arrive at an answer.
You are particularly likely to come up against inductive reasoning tests when applying for engineering, science and IT roles, including software development jobs and positions that involve technical design. They tend to consist of multiple choice questions that you have to complete against the clock. Each question might consist of a series of simple pictures, each one of which is slightly different. You might then be asked to choose another picture from a number of options to complete the series. Try to find out in advance if you are likely to be set an inductive reasoning test as part of an assessment centre, as this will give you the chance to seek out examples and practise. Don't panic if you can't complete all the questions on the day; the test may have been devised so that it is almost impossible to finish before time is up.
Deductive reasoning tests assess a different type of logical problem solving. Broadly speaking, inductive reasoning moves from observation of specific instances to forming a theory that can be used to make predictions. Deductive reasoning starts with a number of rules and applies them in order to work out what happens in specific cases. Inductive reasoning can arrive at new solutions rather than using what is already known to solve a problem, so you can see why employers who focus on technological innovation are interested in it.
Employers may also run tests to assess your problem-solving skills or ability to identify mistakes accurately: eg proof-reading or basic spelling and grammar tests.
Aptitude tests examine your potential to learn a new skill that is needed to do the job you have applied for. If you are considering careers in IT you may be asked to complete a programming aptitude test (this could take the form of a diagrammatic, abstract reasoning or inductive reasoning test). For other career areas, such as finance, you may find that numerical and verbal reasoning tests are focused on the kind of information you would come across in your daily work.
Ability and aptitude tests are usually conducted under timed, exam conditions. Most involve multiple-choice or true/false answers. They can be done on paper but increasingly employers use computer-based programs.
The results compare your ability levels to a ‘normal’ expectation for a demographic group chosen by the employer or test provider (this could be the results of a group of previously successful applicants, people typical of your level of education, or the general public).
Critical thinking and situational judgement tests assess candidates’ natural responses to given situations. They are used in two ways:
To give graduates the chance to evaluate themselves. Several employers host tests in a quiz or game format on their websites to enable graduates to see if they would be a good fit. These tests are usually designed to be fun and appealing, but can be a wake-up call if you are less well suited to working for that particular organisation than you think.
As part of the recruitment process, to gauge how a candidate operates. The test results may also help the recruiter decide which area of the business the candidate would suit best.
The best approach is to answer as honestly and calmly as possible. Candidates should make sure they understand the scenario properly and only use the information given. Situational judgement and critical thinking assessments measure suitability rather than ability, so applicants who don't get through to the next stage of the recruitment process have not failed; rather, they have succeeded in avoiding a job and employer that would not have been a good match.
Personality tests assess your typical behaviour when presented with different situations and your preferred way of going about things. They examine how likely you are to fit into the role and company culture. Assessors may match your responses with those of a sample of successful managers or graduate recruits. Employers look for people with certain characteristics for particular jobs. For a sales role they may want someone who is very forward, sociable, and persuasive.
Don't try to second guess what you think the employer wants to see – personality questionnaires assess consistency in responses. If you’re right for the job and the employer is right for you, you’ll do fine. If the job and employer isn’t looking for people with your personality, you’ll make a lucky escape.
Graduate Talent Simulations were recently introduced by SHL. These are 3D graphics which visually demonstrate a situation, rather than simply telling you about it. They are very similar to the video simulations used by other companies. The difference is that they can be customised and branded to suit a company, so you may come across them more than once in your graduate job hunt. Talking 3D people can be a little off-putting at first, so if you think you’re going to be taking one of these tests, be prepared to listen to what the characters are saying.
Our employer hubs include in-depth reports on individual graduate employers that provide information about how to get hired and give insights about what to expect from the recruitment process.
Free practice tests online
The best way to approach graduate psychometric tests is to practise so that you become familiar with the typical formats they take and the way questions are asked. It will also help you to improve on speed and accuracy and identify areas in your ability tests that need work. Just make sure you don’t get over-confident. Doing practice tests can improve your performance to some degree, but each employer’s tests will be slightly different.
Follow these links for free practice psychometric tests (not hosted by targetjobs.co.uk):
If you have verbal and numerical reasoning tests coming up it’s good to increase your mental agility and get yourself into the habit of recognising word and number patterns through some simple activities.
Get back to the basics of maths: Numerical tests don't require advanced algebra: revising some GCSE-level maths should provide what you need. Revise how to read information presented graphically and brush up on percentages, ratios and probability.
Do number puzzles: Number puzzles like Sudoku are good for helping you recognise number patterns.
Add, subtract, multiply and divide… in your head: When you're at the shops try adding up a few items in your head. Or at least try to get a good estimate of what your trolley-load will cost.
Think about meaning: When you read news stories, think about what statements really mean, and how they could be interpreted.
Do word puzzles: Never has there been a better excuse for frittering away time on the Saturday morning crossword.
Be aware of commonly misspelt words: Most English grammar books and websites have lists of commonly misspelt or 'confusable' words, eg 'its' and 'it's', or 'complement' and 'compliment'. Check you are also aware of the English spellings of words such as liaise, favourite and organise.
Tips for psychometric tests at assessment centres
Pack everything you might need: glasses or contacts, a hearing aid or an inhaler. You may be given a calculator and writing tools to complete the test but it doesn't hurt to take your own kit.
Get a good night’s sleep and leave plenty of time to get to the test centre.
Wear a watch so you can keep track of the time if there is no clock in the room.
If you have a disability that may affect your performance, contact the recruitment team before the test day. Giving the recruiters sufficient notice will enable them to make appropriate arrangements for you.
Listen to instructions and follow them carefully.
If you are given practice examples, make the most of them. You may be given a couple of practice questions to complete before the test starts. If you don't understand how the test works, or anything still doesn't make sense, this is your last chance to ask.
Make sure you know the number of questions and how much time is allowed.
Time left at the end? Use any remaining time to check your answers, but don't be surprised or downhearted if you don't finish everything. Psychometric tests are meant to be challenging.
Don’t let the test throw you, and try not to take any notice of what other candidates say about it. Stay focused, upbeat and ready for the rest of the day.
2013 UPDATE ON A CONCISE CURRICULUM VITAE
OF DR J. K. DANMBAEZUE a.k.a. REV. PROF. J. J. KENEZ
Name: DANMBAEZUE, JIDEOFO KENECHUKWU
Date of Birth: 11th MARCH, 1948
Sex: MALE, MARRIED WITH 3 CHILDREN
Nationality: NIGERIAN (of Biafran Extraction)
Home Address: DANIS FAMILY VILLA, IHIALA
Present Occupation: CONSULTANT CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGIST, EXISTENTIAL FAMILY THERAPIST & PSYCHOMETRICIAN
Present Address: KENEZ HEALTH KLINIK
C 82 Federal Housing Estates,
Phone; 08039097614 or 08104414689,ENUGU.
Sc. in PSYCHOMETRICS, (abbrev: D. Psych) AfricanCollegeofResearch Scientists,Addis Ababa, by the development and standardisation of seven new psychological tests.
Sc. in CLINICAL PSYCHOLOGY / MENTAL HEALTH, from theSchoolofMedicine, Ugbowo Campus,UniversityofBenin,
by a 36-month course work and research dissertation.
Sc. (Honours) in PSYCHOLOGY, 2nd Class Upper Division,UniversityOfLagos.
A. (Honours) in PHILOSOPHY, 2nd Class Lower Division, Bigard Memorial Seminary,Enugu, An affiliate ofRomaUrbanaUniversity,Rome,Italy.
FACRS Fellow & Senior Research Consultant ofAfricanCollegeof Research Scientists, 1995.
Citation of Honour as first Postgraduate Medical Student produced by the School of Medicine, College of Medical Sciences, Ugbowo Campus, University of Benin, Nigeria in the 1982 Convocation.
Ph.D. Scholarship Award (Psychology), byAnambraStateGovernment ofNigeria, February, 1976
Best Officer Award in Public Speech and Drills, Nigerian Air Force Base,Kaduna, 1977.
Best Thesis Award Recipient of the Department of Psychology,UniversityofLagos, June 1975.
1989 - date
Medical Director; KENEZ HEALTH KLINIK, HAPPY FAMILY NETWORK INTERNATIONAL,ENUGU,
1990 – date
Director of Programmes; HAFANI RESEARCH CONSORTIUM, a CBO Health Outfit.
Sports Adviser to Military Governor/ Rangers Football Club, Govt. House,Enugu.
Principal Clinical Psychologist, State Education Commission Headquarters,Enugu.
Clinical Psychologist acting as Zonal Guidance Counsellor, S.E.C, Abakaliki Zone.
NYSC at Dept. of Psychiatry, U.C.H. Ibadan & at Lambo’s Aro Village System,Abeokuta.
CREATIVE OUT-PUT / PSYCHOLOGICAL TESTS
Teenage Health Inventory (1983) for new entrants to Junior Secondary Schools.
ii Career Preference Scale (JSS. Version, 1985) for JSS. 3 Students for SSS.
iii Career Preference Scale (SSS. Version, 1987) for SSS. 3 Students for JAMB.
i Marriage Compatibility Scale (1991) for Prospective Marriage Partners.
ii Engaged Couples Inventory (1992) for Pre-marital Counselling of Couples.
iii Marital Adjustment Profile (1993) for Therapeutic Services to Families.
i Religious Fanaticism Scale (1981) for Pre-Employment Interviews in Industries.
ii Executive Personality Scale (1989) for Recruitment of Senior Staff Personnel.
iii Business Evaluation Test (1999) for Periodical Assessment of Corporate Bodies.
i Family Needs Inventory (1995), for Diagnoses of Problems in Families
ii Family Stability Scale (1996), for Socio-Economic and Emotional Stress.
iii Marital Crises Index (1997) for Micro-Diagnostic Evaluation of Couples.
+ HUMAN MEDICINE:
i Psychoneurotic Personality Inventory (2000) for Assessment of Existential Neuroses.
ii HIV/AIDS Management Inventory (2001) for a Therapeutic Regimen of PLWA.
iii SARS Prophylactic Inventory (2003) for a Preventive fight against the new epidemic.
(+ These are on-going research projects with colleagues atCollegeofMedicine, UNTH.Enugu.)
i The Triads of Life, Existential Treatise on Igbo World-View, B. Phil Thesis,Rome, (1970)
ii The Search for Sanity in Igbo land, a Bachelor’s degree thesis,UniversityofLagos(1975)
iii Personal Adjustment and Religion, a Master’s dissertation,UniversityofBenin(1982)
iv Psychometrics in Family Therapeutics, a Doctoral dissertation,Addis Ababa(1993)
v Am I Qualified For Marriage, Volume I , HAFANI Lectures on marriage for the youth, (1995)
vi Family Counselling –a Psychometric Approach, a scientific manual for professionals (1995)
vii Angelic Verses: Vol. 1 -The Genesis of Human Frailty, a theosophical analysis (2006)
viii Angelic Verses: Vol. 2 -The Aetiology of Ethnocentrism, a critique of racism (in press)
10 Theosophical Treatises of Existentialism in International Magazines.
12 Career/Guidance Counselling Lectures delivered at National Conferences.
15 Scientific Research Papers in Psychotherapy and Community Medicine.
i Onowu Dr. C. A. Ezike, Chief Medical Consultant of HAFANI, firstname.lastname@example.org
ii Prof A. C. J. Ezeoke, Emeritus Professor of Chemical Pathology, email@example.com
iii Professor A.C Mundy-Castle, H.O.D, University of Lagos, firstname.lastname@example.org
KENEZIAN PHILOSOPHY OF LIFE
“A well-known speaker started off his seminar by holding up a $20 bill. In the room of 200, he asked, "Who would like this $20 bill?" Hands started going up. He said, "I am going to give this $20 to one of you but first, let me do this”. He proceeded to crumple the dollar bill up. He then asked, "Who still wants it?" Still the hands were up in the air. "Well," he replied, "what if I do this?" And he dropped it on the ground and started to grind it into the floor with his shoe. He picked it up, now all crumpled and dirty. "Now who still wants it?" Still the hands went into the air. "My friends, you have all learned a very valuable lesson. No matter what I did to the money, you still wanted it because it did not decrease in value. It was still worth $20. Many times in our lives, we are dropped, crumpled and grounded into the dirt by the decisions we make and the circumstances that come our way. We feel as though we are worthless. But no matter what has happened or what will happen, you will never lose your value in God's eyes. To Him, dirty or clean, crumpled or finely creased, you are still priceless to Him.” That is ISM or KENEZIANISM in practice! I hope you cherish these words of wisdom of an Unknown Author! You are welcome to “Let us reason together” as Isaiah, the prophet invited his kinsmen many centuries ago or sit on the fence and die unenlightened by genuine Aristotelian-Kantian combine of deductive and inductive logic, aided by current fund of science knowledge and enquiry to unravel the fables and legends that are now labelled as theology! There is nothing theological about an accumulation of guesswork done by primitive men! They are simply a collection of puerile belief in man-made doctrines, dogmas and rituals that is steadily pushing the humane race to annihilation. Here, I rest my objective of penning this protracted but comprehensive diatribe. Call it heresy, if you like. I do not care a dime. Truth is supreme! Truth is Life, my people declare!
Revolutionary Professor Jude Jideofo Kenez, (D. Sc. In Psychometrics),
The Humble Vessel of the Holy Spirit of the Creator of the Entire Universe.
THE ORIGINS OF KENEZ PSYCHOLOGICAL RESEARCH FOUNDATION
Abbreviated; KPRF is the engine room of the parent organization
Kenez International Humanitarian Organizations Linkage; KIHOL, was conceptualised as an answer to the dearth of indigenous psychological tests in the African continent. It is the brainchild of an ambitious undergraduate on the end of session vacation job in 1973/74 at the government-ownedNeuro-psychiatricHospital,Aba. During his leisure hours at the hospital, he read a scientific review of “Self Assessment ofI.Q” in the Reader’s Digest, a popular magazine he found in the OPD Waiting Room. He was familiar with the British publication since his higher school years, 1966-1967, at Christ theKingCollege,Onitsha. He had from then adopted it as a suitable academic companion. The fascinating puzzle evaluated his scores and placed him within the range of 120 plus or minus15.
He refuted the validity of the assessment tool noting its ethnocentric bias in both the cultural artefacts used in its construction and the peculiar anglicised phraseology used in its verbal and non-verbal test items. He went home determined to rectify the identified anomalies by modifying those areas he saw as skewed assessment items. He christened his indigenous revision; “A Cultural Adaptation of I.Q. Tests”.
This revolutionary impetus lasted another academic session as the young man asked so many questions on the issue and demanded veritable answers from his lecturers at the Department of Psychology,UniversityofLagos, Yaba, inLagos,Nigeria. He eventually produced an Africanised version of that same “Self Assessment ofI.Q” in the Reader’s Digest. One of his lecturers; Dr Delores E. Mack an American Clinical Psychologist; fell in love with him for this feat! This acted as the motivation the lad needed to forage into the theories and practices of psychological testing. He spent hours at the university library.
The developmental skill suffered a setback as examinations that were more serious faced the young researcher during his final year. He however picked up and dusted his notebook on the topic during his National Youth Service Corps year at the Department of Psychiatry,UniversityCollegeHospitalIbadan, 1975 – 1976. He continued to experiment with the idea throughout his three years as a Nigerian Air Force Officer inKanoand later atKaduna, 1976 –1979.
After earning a Master’s degree in Clinical Psychology in 1982 and a Doctorate degree in Psychometrics in 1993, he intensified creative research into how to increase the production of scales, inventories and tests to arrest the dearth of indigenous assessment tools for educational, counselling and medical purposes in Africa. Today after half a century, the same research enthusiast can boast of fifteen well developed, truly validated and internationally standardised psychological tests covering areas in teenage guidance & career counselling, psychological medicine, educational psychology and family counselling/therapy.
THE LIST RUNS THUS:
A Cultural Adaptation of I.Q. Tests, 1974 – 1978.
Religious Fanaticism Scale, 1979 – 1982.
Teenage Health Questionnaire, 1982 –1985.
Career Preference Scale, JSS Version, 1985 –1987.
Career Preference Scale, SSS Version, 1987 – 1989.
Marriage Compatibility Scale, Kenez-Macos, 1984 – 1991.
The theory and practice of Kenezianism started in 1970, at the end of the civil war when its originator Major Kenechukwu Nzeogwu Mbaezue; BA/ 6532, of the Degema Strike Force, 12th Commando Brigade, Biafra, returned from the war front! He felt shattered by the outcome of the fratricidal debacle of three years. “Why did we lose the war of survival? ShouldNigeriathe aggressor defeat us the victims of their cruel and premeditated pogroms? Of what use were the prayers to a god that never answered us? Or did our leaders commit unpardonable war crimes or indulge in sacrilegious absurdities? Is the Muslim religion more authentic and reliable than Christianity? If yes, then let us join them and go on pilgrimages toMecca!” Finding answers to these existential questions drove the young war veteran crazy. He could not comprehend how an unjust war ended in favour of the aggressors. For him it meant that we wasted all our time and youthfulness in the war fronts praying to the God of Christians! He truly deserved veritable explanations! He withdrew from all religious engagement for a period of ten consecutive years, from 1970 to 1980.
That gave him enough time to reflect on some existential questions about all he had learnt from the Christian missionaries that moulded his early life in the junior and senior seminaries. There arose the need for him to re-evaluate his belief system, moderate his scrupulous orientation to social life and thereafter, formulate a realistic code of conduct that could guarantee his survival in the conflicting world of the Nigerian society he found himself trapped in! He lived as a war captive for the next 30 years! Within this period, he fully practised the introverted meditative lifestyle of Viktor Frankl or that detached life of a research scientist reminiscent of the great Austrian monk geneticist, MacGregor Mendel.
He earned a total of four university degrees that spanned a period of 15 years, with breaks here and there to assist his eight younger brothers and sisters, siblings of the same humble family of a school teacher/catechist! To achieve this, he again joined the armed forces of the nation he lived as an exile, the fallout of which was that he neatly sandwiched a military diploma, pjsc, from the Nigerian Air Force in between the four degrees!
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